Ambadi Seed

January 19, 2011

1. Ambadi Plant
1.1 Common Name :
For Cannabinus species : Nalita (Sanskrit), Ambari,
Patsan, Pitwa (Hindi), Mestapat (Bengali), Ambadi,
Ambada (Marathi), Ambari, Sheria (Gujarati), Gogu,
Gongura (Telugu), Pulichhai, Pulimanji, Kasini (Tamil),
Pundi (Kanada), Kanjaru (Malayalam), Kanuria (Oriya).
1.2 Botanical Name :
Family : Malvaceae
Species : Hibiscus cannabinus Linn. and Hibiscus
sabdariffa Linn.
Variety : Altissima
2. Ambadi Cultivation
Plant is indigenous to India. Plant is cultivated mainly
as fibre crop in dry regions and the seed yield is
700 – 800 lbs / acre. It is accepted as fibre crop but
the latest scientific information shows that fibre quality
will not impair much if seed is allowed to set. It produces
seeds which may be a valuable protein supplement
to runinants.
2.1 Cultivated in States :
Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Maharashtra,
Karnataka and Orissa.
3. Ambadi Seeds
The seeds of this plant after milling & Solvent Extraction
gives 13% of oil.
H. Cannabinus seeds are greyesh or dull green and
H. sabdiriffa seeds are brown or pink. Seeds are
tetrahedral in shape. They are Dehulled in stone mill.
3.1 Composition : See Table 1
3.2 Process Yields : See Table 2
4. Ambadi Seed Oil
Oil is brownish yellow in colour. The seed is flaked,
cooked by steam & oil is obtained by expression.
residual oil in cake can be extracted with hexane.
Alternatively seeds after crushing, cooking & flaking
can be directly extracted by solvent. Oil contains
cycloprene acids poxy fatty acids in addition to normal
fatty acids.
4.1 Fatty Acid Composition of Ambadi Seed Oil
Fatty Acid (i) (ii)
Palmitic C 16:0 21.7 20 – 35
Stearic C 18:0 3.8 2 – 4
Oleic C 18:1 28.1 25 – 34
Linoleic C 18:2 42.5 15 – 47
Epoxy (12,13)1 C 18:1 3.0 3.3 – 4.5
Cyclopropenoic2 C 18:1 0.6 1.2 – 2.9
Cyclopropenoic3 C 19:1 0.3 2.3 – 3.4
4.2 Specification : See table 3
Table 1
Composition of H. Sabdariffa Seed
Composition (%)
Moisture 4.8
Oil 19.0 (21.0)*
FFA of Extracted Oil 2.1
Total Protein 18.0
Total Ash 4.0
Crude Fibre 22.0
* in H. Cannabinus Seed
Table 2
Processing of H. Sabdariffa Seed
(%) Yields
Material Processed
Oil Cake Hulls
Rolled whole seed 11 89 Nil
(12.5)*
Meats 12 73 15
(14.5)*
* in H. Cannabinus Seed

Table 4
Composition of Ambadi Oilcake
Source H. sabdariffa Ambadi
Seeds Seeds
Composition From From Expeller
Whole Seeds Meats Kernel Cake
Moisture 9.2 5.5 –
Oil 8.9 7.6 –
FFA of 3.5 4.9 –
Extracted Oil
Total Protein 23.0 28.0 28.0
Crude Fibre 21.2 18.0 18.0
Total Ash 7.0 6.9 7.5
Insoluble Ash 0.20 0.18 0.2
P2O5 – – 2.2
K2O – – 2.0
6. Usage Summary
Oil: For Industrial purposes
Seed Extract : As diuretic, mild laxative
Leaves: Used for Chutney in A.P.
Table 3
Ambadi Seed Oil*
Refractive Index at 40°C 1.465 – 1.471
Saponification Value 189 – 195
Iodine Value 93 – 107
Halphen Test Positive
Expressed Solvent
Extracted
Moisture and Insoluble 0.25 0.50
Impurities, % by mass, Max
Colour in a 1 in cell 25 45
(Lovibond Y + 5R), Max
Acid Value, Max 6 12
Unsaponifiable Matter, 2 2.5
% by mass, Max
Flash Point, Min – 100
* See IS: 9232 – 1979 (Reaffirmed 2000)
5. Ambadi Cake
5.1 Expelled Kernal Cake : See Table 4

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