Process of Extracting Oils and Fats From Vegetable and
Animal Sources in Solvent Extraction Plants
1. Definitions :
(a) “Solvent Extraction Plant” means a plant in which
the process of extracting oils and fats from vegetable
and animals sources by the use of solvents is
(b) “Solvent” means an inflammable liquid shall as pentane,
hexane and heptane used for the recovery of vegetable
(c) “Flame-Proof enclosure” as applied to electrical
machinery or apparatus means an enclosure that
will withstand, when covers or other access doors
are properly secured, an internal explosion of the
flammable gas or vapour which may enter or which
may originate inside the enclose sure without suffering
damage and without communicating internal
inflammation (or explosion) to the external flammable
gas or vapour.
(d) “Competent person” for the purpose of this schedule
shall be atleast a Member of the Institution of Engineers
(India) or an Associate Member of the said Institution
with 10 years experience in a responsible position
as may be approved by the Chief Inspector.
Provided that a Graduate in Mechanical Engineering
or Chemical Technology with specialised knowledge
of oils and fats and with a minimum experience of
5 years in a solvent extraction plant shall also be
considered to be a competent person.
Provided further that the State Government may accept
any other qualifications if in their opinion they are
equivalent to the qualifications aforesaid.
2. Location and Layout :
(a) No solvent extraction plant shall be permitted to be
constructed or extended to within a distance of 30
metres from the nearest residential locality.
(b) A 1.5 metre high continuous wire fencing shall be
provided around solvent extraction plant upto a
minimum distance of 15 metres from the plant.
(c) No person shall be allowed to carry any matches
or an open flame or fire inside the area bound by
(d) Boiler houses and other buildings where open flame
processes are carried on shall be located atleast
30 metres away from the solvent extraction plant.
(e) If godowns and preparatory processes are at less
than 30 metres distance from the solvent extraction
plant, there shall be at least 15 metres distance
from the plant, and a continuous barrier wall of noncombustible
materials 1.5 metres high shall be erected
at a distance of not less than 15 metres from the
solvent extraction plant so that it extends to atleast
30 metres of vapour travel around its ends from the
plant to the possible source of ignition.
3. Electrical Installations :
(a) All electrical motors and wiring and other electrical
equipment installed or housed in solvent extraction
plant shall be of flame-proof construction 1(xx).
(b) All metal parts of the plant and building including various
tanks and containers where solvents are stored or
are present and all parts of electrical equipment not
required to be energised shall be properly bounded
together and connected to earth so as to avoid accidental
rise in the electrical potential of such parts
above earth potential.
4. Restriction of Smoking :
Smoking shall be strictly prohibited within 15 metres
distance from solvent extraction plant. For this
purpose ‘No Smoking’ signs shall be permanently
displayed in the area.
5. Precautions Against Friction :
(a) All tools and equipments including ladders, chains
and other lifting tackle required to be used in solvent
extraction plant shall be of non-sparking type.
(b) No machinery or equipment in any solvent extraction
plant shall be belt driven unless the belt used
is of such a type (it does not permit accumulation
of static electricity to a dangerous level)”
(c) No person shall be allowed to enter and work in the
solvent extraction plant wearing clothes made of nylon
or such other fibre that can generate static electrical
charge or wearing foot-wear which is likely to
cause sparks by friction.
6. Fire Fighting Apparatus :
(a) Adequate number of protable fire extinguishers
suitable for use against flammable liquid fires shall
be provided in the solvent extraction plant.
(b) An automatic water spray sprinkler system on a wetpipe
or open head deluge system with sufficient supply
of storage water shall be provided over solvent
extraction plant and throughout the building housing
7. Precautions Against Power Failure :
Provision shall be made for automatic cutting off of
team in the event of power failure and also for emergency
overhead water supply for feeding water by
gravity to condensers which shall come into play
automatically with the power failure.
8. Magnetic Separators :
Oilcake shall be fed to the extractor by a conveyor
through a hopper and a magnetic separator shall
be provided to remove any piece of iron during its
9. Venting :
(a) Tanks containing solvents shall be protected with
emergency venting to relieve excessive internal
pressure in the event of fire.
(b) All emergency relief vents shall terminate at least
6 metres above the ground and be so located that
vapours will not re-enter the building in which solvent
extraction plants is located.
10. Waste Water :
Process waste water shall be passed through a flash
evaporator to remove any solvent before it is discharged
into a dump 1(which should be located within
the fenced area but should not be closer than 8 metres
to the fence).
11. Ventilation :
The solvent extraction plant shall be well ventilated
and if the plant is housed in a building the building
shall be provided with mechanical ventilation with
provision for at least six air changes per hour.
12. House Keeping :
(a) Solvents shall not be stored in an area covered by
solvent extraction plant except in small quantities
which shall be stored in approved safety cans.
(b) Waste materials such as oily rags, other wastes and
absorbants used to wipe off solvent and point and
oils shall be deposited in approved containers and
removed from the premises at least once a day.
(c) Space within the solvent extraction plant and within
1. Words1 and should be suitable for use in are as where hexane
or similar types of solvents or vapours are kiley to exist added
by G.O.Ms. No. 694, dt. 3-9-1974 again omitted by G.O. Ms.
No. S19 dt. 12-6-80.
15 metres from the plant shall be kept free from any
combustible materials and any spills of oil or solvent
shall be cleaned up immediately.
13. Examination and Repairs :
(a) The solvent extraction plant shall be examined by
the competent person to determine any weakness
or corrosion and wear once in every 12 months. Report
of such examination shall be supplied to the Inspector
with his observation as to whether or not the plant
is in safe condition to work.
(b) No repairs shall be carried out to the machinery or
plant except under the direct supervision of the
(c) Facility shall be provided for purging the plant with
inert gas before opening for cleaning or repairs and
before introducing solvent after repairs.
14. Operating Personnel :
The plant and machinery in the solvent extraction
plant shall be in the charge of such duly qualified
and trained persons as are certified by the competent
person to be fit for the purpose and no other
person shall be allowed to operate the plant and
15. Employment of Women and Young Persons
No woman or young person shall be employed in
the solvent extraction plant.
16. Vapour Detection :
A suitable type of flameproof and portable combustible,
gas indicator shall be provided and maintained
in good working order and a schedule of routine
sampling of atmosphere at various locations as approved
by the Chief Inspector shall be drawn out
and entered in a register maintained for the purpose.
1. When the solvent is removed from a batch extractor
by vaccum, vaccum gauges shall be provided
and tests shall be carried out to ensure that a minimum
vaccum of 650 mm (26*) mercury is obtained and
maintained steadily for a minimum period of 30 minutes
before extractor is allowed to be opened for discharge
of cake or for persons to enter.
2. Where solvent is removed by steam heating, the
presence of the solvent shall be tested at the vent
provided on the top of the vessel before opening the
3. When on opening the door of a batch extractor the
extractor meal cannot be dislodged from the extractor
freely, the door shall be closed and materials re-heated
for atlast sixty minutes before the door is reopened.
4. A log book of operations with the following particulars
shall be maintained and made available on demand
to the inspector:
(i) Vaccum guage reading for each charge where vaccum
extraction is under.
(ii) Date of testing of continuity of electrical bonding and
earthing system and the report of each test.
(iii) Loss of solvent every 24 hours of operation or less
of solvent per tonne of raw-material treated.
If, in respect of any factory, the Chief Inspector is
satisfied that owing to the exceptional circumstances
or infrequency of the processes or for any other reasons,
all or any of the provisions of this Schedule
is not necessary for the protection of the workers
in the factory, the Chief Inspector may, by a certificate
in writing (which he may, in his discretion revoke
at any time), exempt such factory from all or any
of the provisions subject to conditions, if any, as he
may specify therein”.]
1 Inserted by G.O.Ms. No. 152 (F&B) dt. 20-4-1989.