Cheura / Phulware

January 19, 2011

1. Tree
1.1 Common Name : Phulware, Cheuri, Chura
1.2 Botanical name : Diploknema butyracea
(Aisahdra butyracea, Bassia
1.3 Habitat
The Phulwara/Phulware also known as Cheura is
a large diciduous tree normally about 15 m in height.
Well grown trees upto about 40 m can be seen quite
often in Nepal and Sikkim. at altitude 700 – 1500 m
generally in valleys on river banks, on hills slopes.
Tree matures in 5-10 years & gives fruits for 50-
60 years. Production per tree is 100-250 kgs.
1.3.1 Distribution :
Sub-Himalayan tract and outer Himalayas from Kumaon
eastward to Sikkim and North Bengal and Bhutan.
Also found in Andaman-Nicobar Islands.
1.4 Promissing States : Sikkim, U.P., West Bengal.
1.5 Propagation : Seed, Viability is 20-30 days,
Seed may take 10-40 days for
1.6 Sowing time : June-September
1.7 Rain: 1000 mm – 2500 mm/annum. Tree grows well
in humid climate.
2 Morphology
Tree : A large deciduous tree 40-70ft. in height and
6-10 min girth. The bark is grey or brownish.
Harvest : 50 – 200 Kg/tree
Flower : Flowers in April & May with white or pale
yellow colour & mild, sticky fragrance.
Fruits : Fruits enclose glossy brown almond shaped
seed of 2 to 2.5 cms. Fruits. Ripen in May-August.
The tree starts bearing fruits in 5 to 9 years. Fruits
are edible. Fruits are available in June – July.
Fruits Contain : Sugar : 8.5% and crude fibre : 5.6%
Leaves : Leaves are pink or white, make clusters
at the end of branches and are abovate oblong or
ecliptic, obtuse or acute in shape.S
Seeds : Seeds are glossy, black in colour, 1.8 – 2
cm. long, with a whitish almond shaped kernel. 20%
of fruit, 80% kernel. Seeds are are green first but
creamy when ripe.
Wt. of 100 seeds is 78 gms and contain 42-47% oil.
Collection Period : May-August
3. Kernel
Oil content of kernel – 61%
3.1 Potential :
Seed : 5,000 MT (Kernel)
Another estimate 32,000 tonnes
Oil : 3,000 MT
3.2 Composition :
Oil : 60% (Kernel)
Protein : 18%
Phulware Extract
Phulware Extracts Contains
Total Soluble Solids 17-23%
Non-reducing sugar 8.3-11.9%
Vitamin C 0.38 mg/100 g
PH 5.40
Reducing sugar 4.8-6.1%
4. Oil
The yield of the oil is 42-47 percent of the wt. of the
seeds or 60-67 percent of the wt. of the kernels. Oil
has consistency of Ghee and when properly prepared
has a white colour, pleasant taste and odour. It has
good storage qualities. It has Specific Gravity 0.856-
0.862, sap-value 191-200 & iodine value 90-101 with
Unsap matter 1.4-5.0 percent. Fat retains its
consistancy upto 350C but melts at 490C.
It contains 56.6% Palmitic acid, 3.6% Stearic acid,
36.0% Oleic acid & 3.8% Linoleic acid. After butter
preparation remaining portion of extract contains
soapy portion called ‘Saponin’, people use this for
washing purposes.
4.1 Cheura Ghee prepared traditionally has the
following characteristics
Characteristic Value
Specific Gravity at 300C 0856-0.862
Refractive index 400C 1.4552-1.4650
Saponification Value 191-200
Iodine Value 90-101
R.M. Value 0.4-4.3
Unsaponifiable Matter 1.4-5%
Melting Point 39-510C
Titer Value 48-52
Consistency/Acid Value Solid / 9.1
4.2 Fatty Acid Composition (%)
Palmitic C16:0 56.6
Stearic C18:0 3.6
Oleic C18:1 36.0
Linoleic C18:2 3.8
4.3 Glyceride Composition (%)
G S3 9.0
G S2U 67.2
G SU2 18.5
G U3 1.0
G POP 52.5
5. Phulware Cake :
Expelled Kernel Cake Composition :
Protein 39%
Crude fibre 9%
Tannins 16%
Total ash 6.2%
Flavonoids 2%
Saponins Present

Phulware cake, contains saponins and finds use
only as manure. It is used as a worm killer on lawns,
as a fish poison and as an insecticide. Saponin is
also used as soap for washing purposes.
6. Chura Juice :
The Cheura kernels contain Protein (5.20%),
total Carbohydrates (30.00%) and Ash (3.80%).
The Cheura juice is used as soft drinks, Major
components in Cheura juice are as follows:
Total Soluble Solids 17-23%
Non-reducing sugar 8.3-11.9%
Reducing sugar 4.8-6.1%
pH 5.40
Vitamin C 0.38 mg/100 g
7. Usage Summary
Oil : Cocoa-butter substitute in Chocolate,
Vanaspati, Medicines
Cake : Cattlefeed, Soap, Emmoleint for Skin, fish
poison, worm killer for lawns & golf greens.
Butter : In medicines, soaps, ointments, candles,
lamp burning. It is useful for treatment for
rheumatic pain. Poor people use it as
‘Cheaper Ghee’.
Leaves: Good animal feed. Leaves are considered
very nutritious for animals.
Flowers:Flowers are rich source of sugar and utilised
for Gur like products & fermentation. The
Gur is good for health. Bee hives are installed
to get honey.
Fruit Pulp : Poor people eat pulp as fruit or snack.

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