Dhupa

January 19, 2011

1. Tree
1.1 Common Name :
Sanskrit : Dhupa, Kundura, Sarjak, Ajakarna; Hindi:
Kharuba, Safed Damar, Sundras. Mah: Dhupa, Ral;
English : Indian Copal Tree; Trade: Yellapiney; A.P.:
Dhupaa: Kerala : Paini, Piney; Tamil Nadu: Dhup, Piney;
Karnataka: Dhupa, Saldhupa.
1.2 Botanical Name :
Veteria indica Linn (Dipterocarpaceae)
1.3 Habitat :
Moist evergreen to semi-evergreen forests; occasionally
in decidious forest on river banks; Western
ghats and foot hills, Karnataka to Kerala, also on
Deccan plateau along West Coast from 60 to 1,220
metres altitude. Also occurs in Maharashtra and Orissa
also in parts of Karnataka and Kerala.
Other Countries : East Indies.
1.4 Temperature ;
Max : 35 to 38°C
Min : 12.5 to 18°C
1.5 Rainfall : 200 to 500 mm (Annual)
2. Morphology
2.1 The Tree :
It is also known as Indian Copal tree. Large, handsome,
evergreen; height: 15 m or more, growth upto
4.5 m. Timber : used for matches & plywood. Leaves
: Medicinal; Bark : useful in Gur Industry and as internal
medicine in malerial fevers; Resin: Commercial white
damar, used in varnish, candles, ointments, medicines,
incense etc.
2.2 Flowers :
Flowering time from January to March, fragrant, white,
in terminal cory-mbose panicles.
2.3 Fruits :
Fruits ripen from May to July, Fruits are fleshy, oblong
or round capsule, 6×4 cm., resembles sapota or chikoo
in appearance; 3-valved, 1-seeded, pale brown when
ripe. the hard capsule has a 6mm thick brown pericarp
of semifibrous composition;
Yield per Tree : 400 to 500 Kgs. Good crop appears
every 3-5 years with 1-2 poor seasons and 1-2
average seasons in between.
3. Kernels
Dhupa Kernels contain 19-23% of pale yellow fat
having tallow like consistancy and turns white on
standing. 47% in the fruit. Average weight 55g. Reddish
white or green, has a think brown covering, hard,
brittle aromatic; 41 to 48% moisture when fresh; 5%
in dried kernel; driage 40 to 50%; Oil content : 19
to 27%. (On dry basis : 24.58%)
3.1 Specifications for Oil Milling : See Table 1
Table 1
Dhupa Kernels for Oil Milling*
Category Grade 1 Grade 2
Impurities, % by mass, Max 2 5
Moisture Content % by mass, Max 8 12
Oil Content, % by mass, Max 22 16
Acid Value of extracted fat, Max 10 20
* See IS : 9993 – 1981 (Reaffirmed 2000)
3.2 Collection & Preprocessing :
Should be collected immediately when fruit falls down
to avoid germination in the wet soil and infestation
by worms. Collection period : 3 to 4 weeks. Collection
per person per day : 50 to 80 Kg; germ
is removed by hand and fruits decorticated by wooden
mallet; the kernels get broken and sterilised in the
process. Sold as : Broken kernels.
3.3 Potential Availability :
Karnataka 5000 tonnes; Kerala 7300 tonnes
3.4 Processing & Extraction :
Drying : Kernel dried by agitation in a layer of 4 to
5 feet in a godown; Driage : 30%; further 10% driage
by sun drying after monsoon; Fat Extracted : by
water rendering in traditional method – not economic.
Improved Method : Kernel disintegrated to 6.7 mm
and put through expeller first : yield 6 to 9 % Oil,
then through solvent extraction to yield 10 to 12 %
Oil.
4. Oil / Fat
Fat is known as Piney tallow, Malabar tallow or Dhupa
fat. The tallow is greenish yellow to white, fairly soft
with pleasant odour. Can be bleached by exposure
to light;
Use : In toilet soap (upto 30%), edible, for candles,
application in rheumatism and pains, in confectionery
and as adulterant in ghee. Dhupa fat has stearic
acid (38-47%), Oleic acid (38-48%) and Palmitic Acid
(9-15%) as main Fatty acids and has a role as a
Cocoa-butter substitute after processing properly.
4.1 Fatty Acid Composition :
Fatty Acid (%)
Palmitic 9.7 – 13.0
Stearic 38.9 – 45.1
Oleic 42.2 – 47.8
Linoleic 0.2 – 2.3
Arachidic 0.4 – 4.6
Myristic 0 – 1.10
Linolenic 0 – 0.5

(a) : Suitable for edible use
(b) : Suitable for manufacture of refined grade and not
for direct edible consumption.
(c) : Intended for industrial Purposes only.
Additional Specifications for ECO-Mark
Aflatoxin mg/Kg Max 5
Lead (Pb), mg/Kg Max 5
Arsenic (As), mg/Kg Max 0.5
Cadmium (Cd), mg/Kg Max 1.0
Mercury (Hg), mg/Kg Max 0.25
Permitted antioxidants within limits prescribed
Pesticide residue by PFA Act/Rules.
5. Dhupa Cake
Dhupa Cake is hard, bitter and unpalatable to livestock.
It is very low in protein (6-7%)
Good manure : Especially in coffee plantations &
has weedicidal effect.
As feed : Poor in protein, rich in N-free ether extract
hard, unpalatable to livestock; admixture with
wheat bran or groundnut protein improves palatability.
It contains Phenolic resins; glycoside-bergenin
(postulated).
6. Usage Summary
Oil & Fat : Toilet Soaps, Candles, Edible,
local Applications in painful part of body,
Confectionery, as Adultertant in Ghee,
Coco butter substitute, also used in yarn
sizing.
Cake : Manure for plantations.
Tree Resin: Used in Varnish, Candles, Ointments,
Medicines.
Tree bark : Useful in Gur industry, as internal medine
in Malarial fever.
Timber : Manufacture of Matches & plywood.
4.2 Glyceride Composition
Triglyceride %
G S3 3.5
G S2U 67.5
G S U2 26.4
G U3 2.6
4.3 Specifications For Dhupa Fat*:
Refractive Index at 60°C 1.4577 to 1.4677
(BR Reading) (47.6 to 62.8)
Iodine Value 36 to 51
Saponification Value 186 to 193
Type Expessed Fat Solvent Extracted Fat
Grade Refi- Raw Raw Refi- Raw Raw
ned ned
Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade Grade
1 2 1 2
Edibility (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (c)
Moisture and 0.10 0.5 1.0 0.10 0.75 1.5
Volatile matter,
% Max
Colour** not 10 18 25 10 25 40
deeper than
Acid Value Max 0.5 12 20 0.5 12 20
FFA 0.25 6 10 0.25 6 10
Unsaponifiable 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Matter % Max
Titre, °C, Min — 53 53 — 53 53
Flash Point °C, — — — 250 100 90
Min
* See IS: 8879 – 1980 (Reaffirmed 2004)
** Colour in 1/4 in cell on the Lovibond scale, expressed
as (Y + 5R) units

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