1.1 Common Name :
Sanskrit : Brihat Madhu, Pilu; Hindi : Pilu, Jal; A.P.:
Varagogu; Karnataka : Kake, Goni; Kerala: Pilu; Tamil
Nadu : Kohu, Ughai, Kalawa, Karkol, Kokir; Gujarat;
Khakan, Jal, Pilu, Vakhadia; Rajasthan : Khabar, Pilu;
Maharashtra : Khakan, Kinknel (Oil), Chiknel (Oil),
Pilu; Punjab and Haryana : Pilu, Jal, Diar Khokar, Kuber,
Pindir, Tak, Wan; West Bengal : Jhal, Madan madhuni,
Gudakamal; Orissa : Kotungo, toboto; English: Tooth
1.2 Botanical Name :
Salvadora Pleoides Dene : Sweet on Meetha Pilu:
Salvadora Persica Linn : Khara Pilu (Salvadoraceae).
1.3 Habitat :
In India: Grows wild in arid or sandy areas of Punjab
& N. India and thrives in saline soils, but with a stunted
growth. Mainly in coastal areas of Gujarat and
Rajasthan; river valleys in Central and North India;
Other Countries : Africa and Asia.
1.4 Promising States :
Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan.
1.5 Propagation : Seeds, Root sucker & layering.
1.6 Sowing Time : July-August
2.1 The Tree :
A large shrub or small evergreen tree. Height : 15
to 30 feet. Matures : in 8 to 12 years. Peculiar pungent
smell which inhabits growth of other trees near
it. It is generally surrounded by root suckers and
has twisted trunk & drooping branches; Being a sand
binder, it is useful for afforestation in arid areas. Medicinal
: leaves, root bark and fruits are useful. Tender
shoots and leaves of Meetha Pilu used as salad and
as camel fodder.
2.2 Flowers :
It flowers in March-April in North, January to March
in Western areas. Flowers are small, greenish yellow
or greenish white & are in clusters.
2.3 Fruits :
Fruits appear in May in Western areas, June in Central
parts. Fruits are pale green to red brown when ripe.
It is a globose drupe, diameter 0.5 cms; S. persica
fruit bigger in size; sweet fruit is edible and used as
cattle fodder & it also increases milk. Yield per tree
: 10 to 15 Kgs fresh, or 2 to 3 Kg dried fruit.
Oil Content : 19 to 21% in fruit; 34% in seed.
2.4 Collection Period: May-June
2.5 Kernel (S. Persica Kernel) :
Dicotyledons enclosed in thin, brittle shell. Diameter:
0.5 cm, 60% in dried seeds & 49% in dried fruit.
Oil Content: 40-43%.
2.6 Collection and Reprocessing :
Fruits plucked from tree or fallen by shaking the tree
vigorously, collection of unripe Fruits and refraction
of sticks etc. to be avoided. Fruits are dried and
seperated from stems and pulp. Collection season
extends for 15 to 20 days. Collection camps in the
collection areas during this period are beneficial.
Collection per person per day : 40 to 50 Kgs.
Sold as : fruits of mitha Pilu or as dal (cotyledons)
in case of persica. Driage of fruit : 77%. Persica
manually depulped and decorticated by stone grinder.
S. Oleoides yields small, bitter seeds that are difficult
to decorticate. S. persica is the variety mostly
collected for both crushing and for feeding milch
animals for increasing their milk yield. Seeds are
sweet and large yield 39% oil while bitter seeds
yield 21% of oil.
Seed form 44-46% of the whole fruit. The seeds are
reported to contain 2.80%, moisture along with
albuminoids, carbohydrates, fibre & ash.
3.1 Composition :
Oil / Fat: 33% (seeds)
Protein : 27% – Consisting of Lysine, Valine, Methionine,
Cysline, Threonine, Tyrosin, Phenyl Alanine,
Leucine as Ammo acids.
Others : Linoleic acid (45-50%)
Fibre : 17% Crude fibre
3.2 Potential :
Seed : 0.50 Lakh MT, Oil/Fat:0.17 lakh MT
3.3 Processing and Extraction :
Yield on decorticator; 40% kernel, S. persica mostly
collected for crushing. Oleoides is difficult to decorticate
due to pulpiness, hence can go directly for
Yield in Expeller : 39% from persica kernel; 21%
from ripe oleoides fruit and 15% from unripe ones.
3.4 Specification For Oil Milling :
See Table 1
Khankan Seeds For Oil Milling*
Characteristics Grade 1 Grade 2
Damaged, slightly damaged, To be Reported
weevilled and dark seeds, % Max
Impurities, % Max 2 5
Other Oilseeds To be Reported
Shrivelled, Immature 7 10
and dead seeds, % Max
Total of above 8 12
Moisture Content % Max 35 30
Acid Value of extracted fat, Max 6 8
* See IS : 8882 – 1978 (Reaffirmed 2000)
4. Oil / Fat
‘Sweet Variety’ of khakan yields 35-44% oil with strong
odour. Odour due to Benzyl isothiocyanate.
It is greenish yellow fat called Khakan fat. Purified
fat is free from foul odour & has agreeable taste.
It is snow white. Oil is rich in Lauric and Myristic acids.
Fat used upto 20% in soap to replace Coconut oil;
Used as a resist in dyeing industry. application in
Refining by preferential separation of non-glyceride
constituents process (patented); Maceration and
percolation of the coarsely powdered seed with dilute
ethanol at ordinary temperature and subsequent
extraction of fat from the alcohol extracted seed powder;
subsequently conventional alkali refining,
deodorisation and bleaching. Green colour of the oil
can be bleached by exposure to sunlight.
4.1 Fatty Acid Composition
Fatty Acid (%)
Capric C10:0 1.0-1.5
Lauric C12:0 19.6-47.2
Myristic C14:0 28.4-54.5
Palmitic C16:0 18.9-19.5
Oleic C18:1 5.5-12.0
Linoleic C18:2 0.0-1.3
4.2 Specification : See Table 2
Refractive Index at 40°C 1.440 to 1.460
Iodine Value 10 to 16
Saponification value 245 to 255
Melting Point 30 to 32°C
Type Expressed Solvent-
Moisture and Volatile 1.0 1.5
Mattter, % Max
Acid Value Max 8 12
Unsaponifiable Matter, 1.0 1.5
Polenske Value, Min 10 10
Flash Point °C, Min — 100
* See IS: 8881 – 1978 (Reaffirmed 2000)
4.3 Lipid Associates :
In Fat : Benzyl-isothiocyanate, S-dibenzyl thionine;
In Seed : quercetin, rutin, and an alkaloid; also dibenzyl
thiourea, dibenzyl urea and a thioglucoside
glucotropaeolin; these 3 make the seed fat in-edible.
Unsaponifiable Matter : dibenzylthiourea, dibenzyl
urea, substance : C19H20N2 S 0.5 H2O, m.p. 180-182°,
B-sitosteril, a carotenoid and probably higher alcohols
Cakes has glucosinolate called ‘trapaeolin’. It has
Lysine 5.5% and Methionine plus Cystine 5.8% as
As manure : N : 4.26%; P : 1.68% used especially
for tobacco crop.
As a feed : 18.29% protein ; sweet Pilu cake only
used as a cattle feed.
6. Usage Summary
Oil : Medicines, Soaps, Candle making.
Cake : Manure for Tobacco crop, Cattlefeed.
Leaves : Meetha pilu as salad & camel fodder.
As poison antidote.
Fat : Treatment of rheumatic pains,
preparation of suppositories, base for
Berries : As mild laxative, diuretic