Safflower Seed

January 18, 2011

1. Safflower Seed Plant
1.1 Common Name :
Kardi, Safflower, Kartamo, Kusum, (Assamese, Bengali,
Oriya, Hindi), Kusumba/Kusumbha (Punjabi), Barrey
(Hindi), Kosambi (Gujarati), Kardi (Marathi), Kusube
(Kannada), Kusuma (Teluge), Kusumba (Tamil),
Chandrukam (Malayalam)
1.2. Botanical Name :
Family : Compositae (Asteraceae)
Genus : Carthamus
Species : Carthamus tinctorius L.
2. Cultivation
2.1 Varieties / Improved Varieties / Hybrids:
See Table 1
2.2 Oleic Safflower :
Another variety known as “Oleic Safflower” give oil
with 77% Oleic acid and ~15% linoleic acid (High
Oleic oil) as against normal Safflower which is “high
Linoleic” oil having 15% Oleic and 77% linoleic acid
2.3 Thin Hull Varieties :
Thin hull varieties have less than 25% hulls, have
high protein (34%) and oil 46%
2.4 Cultivation Conditions :
Crop : Crop is cultivated in countries from
China to Meditaranian, America
and Australia.
Area Cultivation: Rabi, primarily as rainfed, irrigation
in Maharashtra, Karnataka
and Andhra Pradesh. Limited
extent in M.P., Orissa and Bihar.
Soil : All soils including sandy soils;
Thrives best on water-retentive
black soils and alluvial loams
Sowing Time : In Sept-October or in December.
Also sometimes March/April.
Maturity Period: 4 to 5 months after sowing
Seed Yield : Rainfed ; 400 to 500 Kg/ha. Mixed
Crop gives about 100 kgs.
Temperature : It does not favour extremes of
either heat or cold. The crop is
tolerant to low temp. at seedling
and vegetative stages but
sensitive at elongation, flowering
and post flowering stages.
Rainfall : It grows well in drier areas, it
cannot withstand excess rainfall
or humidity. Frequent & prolonged
rains damage crop due to fungal
diseases.
2.5 Production in the Country
In India, over 98% of the area under crop of Safflower
is in the States of Maharashtra (64%), Karnataka
(26%) and A.P. (8%).
Area under cultivation, production and yield Kg / ha
of Safflower in the country : See Table 2.
2.6 Production in the World :
The production and yield / ha in the countries which
are major producers of Safflowerseed: SeeTable 3.
India is one of the the major producer in the world
along with China, U.S., Mexico, Ethiopia, Spain,
Australia, USSR. Indian Safflower has special demand
as ‘Bird Seed’ due to its bold size and whitish colour.
2.7 Post-harvest Storage :
Seed are safest at 5% moisture, prone to shatter
at 8% moisture and > 12% must be artificially dried,
when moisture >12%.
2.8 Important Hints for the Maximum Yield
* The sowing time should be adjusted in such a way
that there will be no rainfall after flowering.
* Nitrorogen amounting to 24-45 kg per hectare has
to be applied, preferably in two split doses, half at
the time of sowing and the remaining half at flowering.
* Timely inter-cultivation for the eradication of weeds
and control measures against pests and diseases
should be adopted.
3. Safflower Seeds
3.1 Seed Composition :
Hull : 33-45 %
Kernel : 55-65%
Moisture : 7-8%
Oil : 31-32%
Protein : 14-15%
Ash : 5-7%
Crude Fibre : 32-34%
Hull percent: 48 in Commercial seeds (30% oil)
18 in Breeds (48% oil)
3.2 Commercial Grades :
Oil milling Grades : See Table 4.
4. Safflower Seed Oil
Safflower seed oil is a polyunsaturaed (PUFA) drying
oil with high levels of Linoleic acid (78 %) Some
varieties have higher Oleic acid and lower Linoleic
acid. High Linoleic acid plays role in reducing the
blood cholesterol level.
The oil content of the seeds is 20 to 30%. The oil
obtained by cold expession (yield, c. 20%) is golden
yellow in colour. The oil is used mainly for edible and
illuminating purposes and for the manufacture of soap.
It is different from linseed oil in containing very little
Linolenic acid.
4.1 Fatty Acid Composition :
Seed yield & Oil yield analysis and characteristics
of oils of a few varieties of Safflower seed devloped
by NARI in India : See Table 5.
Fatty acid composition of oil in other countries: See
Table 6.
4.2 Grades and Specifications :
Grades and specifications of expressed and solvent
extracted types of Safflower seed oil in India:
See Table 7.
4.3 Production of Oil :
See Statistical Section
5 Safflower Seed Cakes / Deoiled Meals
5.1 Analysis of Seed and Meal :
Analysis of sunflower seed, Rotary pressed meal
and Solvent extracted meal : See table 8.
Table 1
Safflower Seed: Improved Varieties and Hybrids in India
Name of the Duration
State Variety Days Special Characteristics
Karnataka ‘A-1′ 125 Yield 800-850 kg/ha, Oil content 30.8%
125
‘A-300′ 125 Yield 750-800 kg/ha, Oil content 30.9%
125
M.P. ‘NO-7′ 140 Yield 700-850 kg/ha, Oil content 30.3%
Maharashtra ‘NO-62.8′ 140 Yield 1,000-1,200 kg/ha, Oil content 30%
‘NAG-7′ 140 Yield 1,000-1,200 kg/ha, Oil content 30%
Tara 130 Yield 1,000-1,400 kg/ha, Oil content 32.5%
T.N. ‘K-1 120 Yield 600-800 kg/ha, Oil content 30.5%
A.P. ‘Manjira’ 110 Yield 1,200-1,200 kg/ha, Oil content 32%
Source: DGCIS
Table 2
All-India Area, Production and Yield of Safflower
(2001-02 to 2007-08)
(Area : Lakh hec, Produ : M.T., Yield : kg/hec)
Year Area Production Yield
2001-02 4.04 2.21 546
2002-03 3.50 1.57 450
2003-04 3.60 1.30 371
2004-05 3.70 1.70 470
2005-06 3.60 2.30 627
2006-07 3.80 2.40 637
2007-08 3.20 2.25 701
5.2 Specifications, Nutrients and Metabolisable
Energy: See table : 9.
5.2 Production and Exports : See Statistical Section
5.3 Export of Seeds / Import of Oil : See Statistical
section.
Table 3
World Production of Safflowerseed
(2005-06 TO 2007-08)
Harvest Area (Mn. ha) Production (Mn. T) Yield (T/ha)
07-08 (P) 06-07 05-06 07-08 (P) 06-07 05-06 07-08(P) 06-07 05-06
India Feb.-Apr. 0.33 0.37 0.39 0.17 0.19 0.21 0.52 0.51 0.54
Mexico Apr.-Jun. 0.09 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.07 0.09 1.19 1.05 1.09
U.S.A. Sept.-Oct. 0.07 0.07 0.07 0.10 0.09 0.09 1.36 1.20 1.35
Argentina Nov.-Feb. 0.07 0.08 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.03 0.85 0.77 0.91
Kazakhstan Sept.-Oct. 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.03 0.04 0.04 0.52 0.55 0.53
Australia Dec.-Jan. 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.65 0.64 0.65
Kyrgyztan Sept.-Oct. 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.82 0.89 0.82
World — 0.68 0.71 0.71 0.50 0.49 0.50 0.73 0.70 0.70
Source : Oil World
Table 4
Safflower Seed For Oil Milling
Grade Grade 1 Grade 2
Damaged and weevilled seeds, % Max 1 3
Slightly damaged seeds, % Max 2 6
Shrivelled and immature seeds, % Max 2 6
Impurities % Max 1 3
Total of above, Max 5 10
Moisture content % Max 6 6
Oil content (on moisture free basis), % Min 35 30
Acid value of extracted oil, Max 2 6
IS : 5292-1969 (Reaffirmed 2000)
Table 5
Performance of Released Safflower Varieties / Hybrids Developed at NARI
Sr. Variety/ Seed % Oil % Flower %
No. hybrid yield increase yield increase Yield incr- Important
(Year of Kg/ha) over (kg/ha) yield (kg/ha) ease Characteristics
release) check check over
check
1. Nira (1987) 2012 19.90 654 32.1 — — Spiny, early-maturing
aphid-tolerant variety
2. NARI-6 1024 20.19 304 25.97 73.0 -5.49 Non-spiny variety with
(2000) dark red flowers
3. NARI-NH-1 1895 24.83 593 32.96 215 128.72 Non-spiny, moderately
(2001) pest and disease
tolerant hybrid
4. NARI-H-15 2201 18.65 669 14.33 — — Spiny, moderately
(2005) pest and diseasetolerant
hybrid
5. NARI-38 2038 9.46 534 14.43 — — Spiny, moderately
(2007) wilt-resistant variety
Check for 2 and 3 : non-spiny variety JSI-7, Check for 1 and 5 : spiny variety A-1 (National check)
Check for 4 : Non-spiny hybrid NARI-NH-1
Source: Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute, (NARI), Maharashtra
Country Harvest

Table 6
Safflower Oil : Fatty Acid Composition In Other Countries
Fatty Acid High Linoleic (%) High Oleic (%)
<0.1 —
Myristic C14:0 <1.0 —
Palmitic C16:0 2-10 4-8
Palmitoleic C16:1 <0.5 —
Stearic C18:0 1-10 4-8
Oleic C18:1 7-42 74-79
Linoleic C18:2 55-81 11-91
Linolenic C18:3 <1.0 —
Arachidic C20:0 <0.5 —
Gadoleic C20:1 <0.5 —
Behenic C22:0 <0.5 —
Table 7
Safflower Seed Oil : Specifications*
Butyro-refractometer Reading at 40°C 62.4 — 64.7+
Refractive Index at 40°C 1.4674 — 1.489
Specific Gravity at 30°/30°C 0.915 — 0.920
Saponification Value 186 — 196
Iodine Value (Wijs) 135 — 148
Type Expressed Oil Solvent-Extracted Oil
Grade Grade 1 Grade 2 Refined Semi- Grade 1
Refned Raw
Edibility (a) (a) (a) (b) (b)
Moisture and Insoluble Impurities, 0.25 0.25 0.10 0.25 0.50
% by wt. Max
Colour **
Original oil, Max 15 15 2.5 4 25
Bleached oil, Max — — — 2.5 5
Acid Value, Max 2.0 6.0 0.5 1.0 6.0
Unsaponifiable Matter, % by wt., Max 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5
Flash Point °C, Min — — 250 125 100
*See IS : 3491-1965 (Reaffirmed 2004), **Colour in 1/4 in cell in the Lovibond scale,expressed as (y+5R) units
(a) : Suitable for edible use
(b) : Suitable for manufacture of refined oil and vanspati and not for direct edible consumption
+ : PFA Acts & Rules, 1955 (Edition 2008), See A-17.09
Table 8
Safflower Seed and Meals : Analysis
Meal
Constituents Seed Ratary Solvent
Pressed Extracted
Protein (%) 18.6 24.5 28.0
Oil (%) 33.9 16.7 0.7
Crude Fibre (%) 29.8 21.3 34.3
N-free extract (%) 15.5 34.2 31.9
Ca (%) 0.3 0.3 0.5
P (%) 0.2 0.3 0.4
Metabolisable 3804 2506 1470
Energy (Kcal/G)

ECO – Mark
Additional Specifications For ECO-Mark
Lead (Pb), mg/kg Max : 5
Arsenic (As) mg/kg Max : 0.5 Aflatoxin, mg/kg Max : 5
Cadmium (Cd) mg/kg Max : 1.0 Permitted antioxidants within limits prescribed
Mercury (Hg) mg/kg Max : 0.25 Pesticide residue by PFA Act./Rules
Table 9
Safflower :D eoiled Cake / Meal Specifications Nutrients and Metabolisable Energy
Specifications : (%)
Oil and Albumin (Profat) 20/21 Min
Sand/Silica 2.5 Max
Fibre 35-40 Max
Castor nil
Moisture 10 Max
Nutrients : (%)
Dry matter 90
Protein
Total Crude Protein (CP) 20
Digestible Crude Protein (DCP) 17
Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN) 52
Essential Amino Acids
Lysine 0.56
Methionine 0.32
Cysteine 0.34
Threonine 0.62
Trytophan 0.28
Mineral Elements
Ca 0.5
P 0.8
Metabolisable Energy : (KCal/kg)
Cattle 1800
Poultry 1498

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