1.1 Common Name :
English : Sal Sanskrit : Ashwakarna, Hindi : Sal, Sakhu
A.P. : Tamba, Sarjakamu; Kerala; Maramaram, Tamil
Nadu; Kuglayam*, Karnataka; Kabba*, Gujarat: Ral*
Sall, Marathi : Ral*, Sal; Orissa : Salwa, Sekwa, W.B.
: Shal, Assam : Bolsal, Hal-orang, Sal, Diengblei, Bihar
: Sal, Sarai, Lepcha: Taksai, Kung. (*Name of the resin)
1.2 Botanical Name :
Shorea robusta, (Dipterocarpaceae)
1.3 Habitat :
Forest in North-East and Central India, continuous
stretch from Ambala District along sub Himalayan
tract and Himalyas upto Darrang and Tripura. Grows
both in dry and moist forests.
1.4 Propagation : Seed
1.5 Promising States :
Assam, Bihar, M.P., Orissa, U.P., West Bengal, Nepal
the Deccan Platease. In orissa, two Solvent Extraction
Plants are utilising 40,000 tonnes of Sal Kernels
& exporting the oil.
Orissa is rich in Sal forests with 19,268.79 sq.km.
which is alomst 33% of total forest area in the state.
Estimated Potential availability of Salseed in India 15
lakh tonnes. The potential for Sal Fat is around 1.80
lakh tonnes. But only 6000-9000 tonnes of fat is
produced in India
1.6 Sowing time :
Natural regeneration in forest areas.
2.1 The Tree :
Tall, handsome tree, sub-deciduous, Height : 30 to
35 m found in Central & North India, with girth of 2
to 2.5 m in 100 years. Host tree of tussar silk worm
and lac. Wood: Valuable timber main product. Leaves
: Used for green manure, Bidi, Platters and Dronas
(bowls). Resin : Commerical product, used as incense,
disinfectant and fumigant; use in paints &
varnishes etc. Bark : Reddish brown
2.2 Flowers :
Flowering is random to some extent with two or three
year cycles. May-June, in axillary or terminal panicles,
wheatish in colour, sweet smelling, small, profuse,
suitable for honey bees; at random no flowering
and fruiting to some of the trees in variable
pattern year to year. Tribal women use it for their
2.3 Fruit :
66.4% of Sal fruit is kernels & pods and 33.6% is
shell & calyx, ripens in May, five wing like sapels
and one seed; three categories of sizes : 16.5 x 12.8
cm (Big), 14.5 x 10.3 cm (Medium) and 9.75 x 6.8
cm (Small) Wings: 20.8%, Shell : 12.8%, Kernel :
66.4%, Yield per tree : 5.6 kgs of kernel. Wt. of 850
fruits is 1kg. Fruits loose their viability rapidly.
2.3.1Collection Period : June-July
2.4 Leaves :
All leaves are shed by the free from February to April.
Fresh leaves appear during April & May. Leaves are
ovate, oblong in shape. 10 to 25 cms x 5 to 15 cms
in size, texture is tough & coriaceous with shine on
upper surface when fully matured.
2.5 Seeds :
Seed constitute 33.6% of shell and contains 19-20%
Oil. It has calyx & wings,. Dewinged seeds contain
a thin, brittle seedpod. The whole kernels have 5 segments
covering the embryo. Storage of seeds is
important and 2 kg seeds give one kg of kernel.
Seed Seed Collected in Seed Collected
Part early season in later part of the season
Wings 38% 32%
Pods 27% 23
Kernels 35% 45%
2.6 Collection / Pre-processing :
Fruits forming a layer on the ground are swept together
or hand picked; Collection per head per day
: 30 to 40 Kg; Wings removed by burning and rubbing;
seeds crushed under wooden planks for decortication.
Period of colleciton : 4 weeks. Fruits are
not allowed to germinate in wet ground. Decorticator
which gives 61% kernel can be used in an organised
collection. Sold as : Kernel.
Whole Kernel has 5 Segments covering embryo. In
germinating seeds, the kernel is the contyledons or
the first leaves of an embryo. These decorticated
seeds are commercially known as Salseed. About
1800 kernels make a kg in wt. Oil Content : 14 to
20%, Moisture: 4.7 to 20.8%, can be protected from
infestation of insects by teatment for 12-24 hours
with aluminium phosphide after covering the seeds
with tarpaulin. F.F.A. increases during storage.
3.1 Kernel Composition :
Oil : 12-13% (Seed), Protein : 14%
3.2 Storage / Processing / Extraction :
Storage of Salseed before processing is very important
as moisture content of seeds play crucial role in
production of oil & fruit quality. In general seeds
should be absolutely dry.
Fat traditionally obtained by water-rendering, crushing
on expeller and direct solvent extraction is not efficient;
maximum recovery by solvent extraction of
cooked and flaked kernel, keeping the residual oil
in cake to 0.7%. Food grade Hexane used for solvent
extraction. Yield of refined fat is 81%.
4. Oil / Fat
The cotyledons of the Seed give Sal Fat or Butter.
Sal fat is greenish brown in colour and has typical
odour. It is solid at room temp. & melts at 350C.
Seed Yields 19-20% of fatty oil (Sal Butter), Oils
used for cooking locally and used for soap upto 30%;
colour removed by caustic soda solution and bleached
by exposure to Sunlight; locally used as edible; refined
modified fat substitutes Cocoa butter in confectionary
industry to great extent and has export demand
especially in Chocolates.
Market Prospect of Sal Fat %
CBE (Cocoa butter equivalent) 60
Vanaspati (Edible Ghee) 10
Soap making 15
Paints and Pigments 10
Lubricants, Auto oil etc. 05
4.1 Fatty Acids Composition :
Fatty Acids % (Range)
Palmitic 4.5 – 8.6
Stearic 34.2 – 44.2
Arachidic 6.3 – 12.2
Oleic 41.4 – 42.2
Linoleic 2 – 3
Epoxy and dihydroxy 2-35
4.2 Glyceride Composition :
G StOSt 40 – 45
G POSt 8
G AOSt 10 – 14
G StOO 21 – 25
G AOO 4 – 8
Total G S2 U 62 – 70
4.3 Grades and Specification:
See Table 1
4.4 Sal Resin :
On tapping, Sal tree yields an Oleresin known as
‘Sal Dammar or Bengal Dammar’. Large quantity
of this resin is produced in India and its important
useage as incense & burnt in religious ceremonies
& cremation rites. It is also used in inferior paints
& Varnishes for caulking boats. It is also used as
cementing material for plywood, asbestos sheets
etc. Resin is also used as Astringent in indigenous
system of Medicine.
5. Cake Composition and Use
Constitution of DoC %
Starch 40 – 50
Protein 10 – 14
Fibre 04 – 08
Tanin 06 – 12
Ash 03 – 04
Moisture 10 – 12
Use As Manure : Oilcake rich in tannins has been
used in proportions upto 20% in concentrated for
Cattle and as food astringent.
As Cattle / Poultry / Fish Feed : Used to a limited
extent in mixed feeds. Good source of energy to cattle
and poultry; deoiled meal upto 10% in compound feeds
for poultry & pigs and tannin-free cake upto 30%.
Industrial : Extender for urea formadehyde resin
adhesive for plywood.
6. Salseed Processing, Production and Exports:
See table 2
7. Usage Summary :
Oil : Soaps, Vanaspati Cocoa-butter substitute in
Cake: Cattlefeed / Poultry feed / Textiles industries
/ manure / fuel in solvent Ext. Plants.
Fat : Illumination, locally for cooking.
Wood: Wood is extensively as timber in N. India.
Indian Railways using it as sleepers.
Leaves: Locals use it by making bidis for for smok
ing, eating platters & bowls.
Sal Resin: Used as incense, used in interior paints
& varnishes, as cementing material to
plywood, in medicines.
Salseed Processing, Production and Exports
(2001-02 to 2008-09)
Production of S.E. Oils Production Exports of Extraction Exports of Oil
Extraction Unit F.O.B. Unit
Year Processed Edible Industrial Total M.T. Qty. F.O.B. Value Qty. Value Value
M.T. M.T. M.T. M.T. M.T. Rs. M.T. M.T. Rs. Rs./M.T.
2008-09 (P) 21,334 899 1,848 2,747 18,288 – - – 1,692 23.96 1,41,674
2007-08 61,585 5,630 2,633 8,263 53,011 – - – 2,417 23.54 97,384
2006-07 20,779 1,433 1,566 2,999 17,776 – - – 1,475 10.01 67,874
2005-06 49,076 6,947 65 7,012 41,942 – - – 983 5.70 58,021
2004-05 29,923 3,808 350 4,158 25,642 – - – 3,500 19.70 56,292
2003-04 47,045 1,719 4,182 5,901 40,833 – - – 4,500 27.00 62,491
2002-03 13,394 – 1,774 1,774 11,427 – - – 950 6.47 68,066
2001-02 23,812 2,028 1,155 3,183 20,424 – - – 3,039 19.96 65,680
Source : SEA Data Bank
Source : Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources, Govt. of India, OFDC – Orissa Forest Dev. Corp.
Refractive Index at 40°C 1,4500 — 1,4600
(BR Reading) 36.7 — 51.0
Iodine Value 31 — 45
Saponification Value 180 — 195
Titre, °C 46 — 53
Unsaponifable matter, % by mass Max 2.5
Refined Raw Raw
Grade Grade 1 Grade 2
Edibility (a) (b) (c)
Moisture and Volatile matter, % by mass Max 0.1 1.0 1.0
Acid Value, Max 0.5 12 12
FFA % by mass, Max 0.25 6 10
Flash Point, °C, Min 250 100 100
9, 10 Epoxy and 9, 10 dihydroxy 3.0 — —
Stearic Acids, % by mass Max
*See IS : 7375 – 1979 (Reaffirmed 2004 & also PFA Acts & Rules (2008)edition.
(a) : Suitable for edible purposes,
(b) : Suitable for making vanaspati and refined fat and for use in bakery and confectionery and not for direct consumption,
(c) : Suitable for industrial use other than (b)
ECO – Mark
Additional Specifications For ECO-Mark:
Aflatoxin, mg/kg Max : 5
Lead (Pb), Mg/Kg Max : 5
Arsenic (As), Mg/Kg Max : 0.5
Cadmium (Cd), Mg/Kg Max : 1.0
Mercury (Hg), Mg/Kg Max : 0.25
Permitted antioxidants within limits prescribed by PFA Act / Rules