Tamarind Seed

January 19, 2011

1. Tamrind Tree
The tree can grow upto 20 m in height and stays
evergreen. It is frost sensitive. It is used as ‘Ornamental
tree’ & to provide shade.
1.1 Common Names :
Marathi : Chich; Malayalam, Tamil : Puli; Kannada:
Huli; Bengali, Gujarati : Amli; Hindi, Punjabi : Chinchpala,
Tintidika, Imli.
1.2 Botanical Name :
Tamarindus indica
1.3 Habitat :
Found through out the plains, specially in Andhra
Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka,
Orissa & sub-Himalaya tracts
2. Tamarind Fruit / Seeds
Tamrind Fruit is brown pool like Legume & contains
soft acidic pulp and many hard coat seeds. Seeds
can be sacrified to enhance germination. Young fruit
has hard, green pulp which is sour and acidic and
used as component of savary dishes. Ripened fruit
is sweeter and used in desserts, drinks & snacks.
Seeds are (1.5 x 0.8cm) in size, smooth, Contain
6-8% unsaturated oil, Dark brown in colour, shining,
seeds enveloped in hard membrane
2.1 Potential Availability :
Karnataka : 20,000 t, Kerala : 2,000 t
2.2 Tamarind Seed / Tamarind Kernel : Isolation of
kernel without the thin tough and brown testa (shell)
is difficult. The tamarind kernel powder (TKP) is used
as sizing material for textile and jute processing, and
in the manufacture of industrial gums and adhesives.
It is deoiled to stabilise its deteriorating colour and
odour on storage.
2.2.1The Composition of T.K.P. :
See Table 1
Table 1
Composition of Tamarind Kernel Powder (%)
Composition Original Deoiled
Oil 7.6 0.6
Protein 7.6 19.0
Polysaccharide 51.0 55.0
Crude Fibre 1.2 1.1
Total Ash 3.9 3.4
Acid Insoluable Ash 0.4 0.3
Moisture 7.1 —
3. Tamarind Seed Oil
Isolation of kernels without shell is difficult, and the
solvent extracted oil from Tamrind kernel is dark
brown in colour. it is bleached after refining.
The Fatty oil from kernels resembles peanut oil &
useful in paints, varnishes & burning lamps. The Fatty
acid composition of oil Linoleic 46.4%, Oleic 27.2%
and Saturated acids 26.4%.
3.1 Characteristics and Specification of Oil :
See Table 2
3.2 Fatty Acid Composition : See Table 3
Table 2
Tamarind Kernel Oil*
Moisture and Insoluble 0.25
Impurites, % Max
Refractive Index at 40°C 1.4600 to 1.4700
Saponification Value, 184 to 196
Iodine Value, 100 to 120
Acid Value, Max 20
Unsaponifiable Matter, % Max 3
Flash Point, °C, Max 100
* See IS : 9587 – 1980 (Reaffirmed 2004)
Table 3
Fatty Acid Composition of
Tamarind Kernel Oil
Fatty Acid (%) Range Reported
Lauric C12:0 tr – 0.3
Myristic C14:0 tr – 0.4
Palmitic C16:0 8.7 – 14.8
Stearic C18:0 4.4 – 6.6
Arachidic C20:0 3.7 – 12.2
Lignoceric C24:0 4.0 – 22.3
Oleic C18:1 19.6 – 27.0
Linoleic C18:2 7.5 – 55.4
Linolenic C18:3 2.8 – 5.6**
**also “nil” has been reported.
4. Tamarind Kernel Cake / Deoiled Meal
4.1 Deoiled Tamrind Kernel Cake Composition :
See table 1
Tamarind Seed

5. Usage Summary
Pulp : Cleaning brass shrine furniture
Tamrind Seed : Manufacture of Industiral gums,
Kernel : Adhesives & the sizing material for
textile & jute processing
Oil : Useful in paints & varnishes & burning
lamps.
Wood : Making Furniture & Floorings In Indian
Kitchens, especially in A.P. & T.N. it
is used to prepare Rasam, Sambhar,
Puliyogare and various type of
chutneys. Tamrind is also used in
Ayurvedic medicines for gastric &
digestive problems.

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